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Wine glossary

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - P - R - S - T - U - V


TO

sweetish
It is said of a wine with a light sweet taste, determined by the presence of residual sugars that have not turned into alcohol.
unripe
Wine not yet aged and with a sour, excessively acidic and disharmonious taste in the mouth. In the mouth there is the sensation of tasting an unripe fruit
Acidity
One of the sensations that determines the taste of wine, due to the acids that the wine contains
of course. If it is not excessive, acidity "lightens" the wine taste, making it seem less full-bodied, while a low acidity underlines the softness and structure of the wine.
Acute
Term used in the olfactory analysis when there is an aggressive, subtle, immediate and pungent aroma.
Refinement
a physiological phase of the wine which from disharmonious, after a period of aging in wood, steel or bottle, becomes harmonious.
Withering
Dehydration of the grape to concentrate sugars. The method is used to obtain raisin wines.
allappante
It is said of a wine that "binds" in the mouth due to a high amount of tannin
Amarascato
Wine with aroma and taste reminiscent of black cherry or morello cherry.
Aromatic
It is said of a wine that enhances penetrating aromas. Fruity wines are generally particularly aromatic.
Harmonic
It is the right balance between all the elements that characterize the wine (aromas, flavors, etc.). A wine can be defined harmonious when no element prevails over the others and all contribute equally to its flavor
Dry
Wine that provides a slight sensation of astringency and leaves the mouth free of saliva (dry).
Astringent
Taste sensation generated by the presence of tannins that "bind the mouth" by drying it.

B

Barrique
Bordeaux oak barrel (used for the first time in the Bordeaux region), generally with a capacity of 225 liters. It gives the wine a characteristic aroma and allows it to be micro-oxygenated
Bouquet
French term by which we mean the set of aromas and aromas that wine acquires with different degrees of aging (primary, secondary and tertiary aromas).  

Brilliant Bright and perfectly transparent wine

C

Classic
Wine produced in the relative area of the oldest winemaking tradition
Consistency
Indicates the richness of wine in compositional substances. A particularly consistent wine glides along the walls of the glass in a non-flowing way
Cru
Term of French origin, it indicates a place of production of the grapes (vineyard) particularly suited for that type of grape
Cuvée
Term francese which indicates a mixture of several wines, sometimes from different vintages, or grapes to obtain a unique cut (it is almost a synonym of blend or assembly). Often used in Champagne.

D

Tasting

Evaluation of the quality of the wine based on the perception of the organoleptic properties of the wine and the sensations it generates.
Name
Brand that guarantees a certain origin of the wine and the compliance with specific requirements of a particular production specification (DOC DOCG).
disharmonious
It is a wine in which one element prevails over all the others giving it an unbalanced flavor
Destemming
Separation of the grapes from the stalks, generally before pressing.
disciplinary
All the rules that regulate the production of a specific denomination
Hardness
The hardness of the wine is due to a series of components including acids, mineral salts, tannins. It impacts the mouth causing sensations of freshness but acidity, flavor but jump, tannic but astringent.
DOC, DOCG
Wines protected by a specific production specification. The DOCG disciplinaries provide for stricter rules and controls than the DOC disciplinary ones.

IS

Effervescence

Presence inside a carbon dioxide wine, which is manifested by the presence of more or less large bubbles in sparkling wines and sparkling wines. The more fine and persistent the bubbles, the better the quality of the wine.
Elegant
Particularly balanced and harmonious wine.
Balanced
Balancing the aromas and flavors of a wine. A wine can be defined as balanced in which sensations such as acidity, flavor, roundness, etc., are in the right relationship, without prevailing one over the other.
Herbal
Term related to the olfactory and gustatory aspect of a wine. It indicates the sensation of fresh grass, sometimes it can take on nuances reminiscent of hay and freshly cut grass. Present in certain young wines such as cabernet and merlot.

F

lees
Term indicating the sediment of the wine during the processing phases
Alcoholic fermentation
Natural biochemical reaction by yeasts that mainly transform grape sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide
Malolactic fermentation
Natural biochemical reaction by bacteria that transform the malic acid naturally present in young wines and responsible for hints such as freshness in lactic acid which is responsible for more mature hints. Not all wines undergo malo-lactic fermentation
Filtering
Removal of any suspended particles in the wine
end
It is said of a wine that, for its global characteristics, its strengths and balance, stands out from the others.
Final or end of mouth
Set of sensations that persist in the mouth after the wine has been swallowed and which allow to evaluate the complexity, balance and age.
Floral
Perfume given by a set of notes of flowers
Fresh
it is said of a moderately acidic and alcoholic wine, with remarkable balance ratios, which provides sensations of pleasant freshness. Typical of a young wine with a light and pleasant acidity.
Fruity
It is said of a wine with a hint of fruit
Fragrant
It is said of a wine that has hints of very pleasant flowers and fruit.
Freshness
Set of pleasant acidity and fragrance of taste, which make a wine brilliant to the senses.

G

Young
This adjective takes on different meanings depending on the wine it is tasting. If it is a wine capable of aging, it will be defined young when it has not completed the refinement phase. On the other hand, if the wine is of a certain age, it is defined as young when it is still fruity and energetic.
Generous
It is said of a full-bodied and dense wine. Strongly alcoholic, warm and vigorous wine that gives the body a pleasant sensation of well-being.

THE

IGT
Typical geographical indication. Denomination that guarantees the geographical origin of a wine, sometimes also the blend
Immature
wine that has not yet reached its maturity in taste and aroma.
Intensity
Characteristic that can refer to the color tone, the breadth and depth of the perfume or to a guI'm particularly pronounced

L

Light
It is said of a wine that has a perfume with delicate hints, or of a wine of moderate alcohol content.
clarity
It refers to the color of the wine, it indicates the absence of suspended substances or deposits
Fortified
Wine rich in sugars, alcohol and glycerin
Longevity
Indicates the possibility of a wine lasting over time, maintaining or improving its qualities

M

Maceration
Vinification phase in which the must remains in contact with the skins.
skinny
It is said to be a light, weak and poor-bodied wine, with a low alcohol content that lacks bouquet and flavor.
Charmat method
Used in the production of sparkling wines, this method consists of sparkling wine in hermetic containers called autoclaves.
Classic method
Sparkling wine production process, which consists in inducing a refermentation in the bottle with the use of selected sugars and yeasts.
Thousandth
For sparkling wines, this term indicates the vintage in which the harvest took place. A wine with the vintage on the label is called vintage. Usually, a producer decides to "vintage" in case of particularly good years.
minerality
Mineral substances are components that determine the structure of a wine and, in terms of taste, its flavor. It is a characteristic sought after in many white wines
Softness
A wine can be defined as soft when it has velvety sensations in the mouth. Generally softness is a characteristic of mature and structured wines.
Must
Juice obtained by pressing by pressing or pressing the grapes and not yet fermented.
Mousse or foam
It is the "foam" that is formed when pouring Champagne or Spumante into the glass. It must be light. fine, copious and ready to dissolve in the liquid contained in the glass.
Muffato
The term muffato refers to wines produced using grapes attacked by Botrytis Cinerea, noble mold that concentrates the aromas and aromas of the wine. Muffled wines go well with desserts, mature cheeses and dried fruit and the recommended serving temperature is 8 - 10 ° C

P

pasty
It is said of a very soft wine rich in sugars and glycerin.
Perlage
Characteristic of sparkling or sparkling wines, it indicates the bubbles that move from the bottom of the glass to the top.
Persistence
Duration, in seconds, of the olfactory and gustatory sensations after swallowing the wine.
Full
Full-bodied, well-structured wine that feels very good in the mouth. It is said of a complete, balanced, round, compact wine that fills the mouth
pressing
Preliminary phase of the winemaking process which causes the grapes to break to obtain the juice which will subsequently be fermented in wine.
Second fermentation
Phase of the sparkling process that leads the wine to become sparkling.
Organoleptic properties
Qualities related to a wine, which can be perceived and assessed by our sense organs during a tasting. The characteristics concern color, smell and taste
pungent
Term indicating a wine that seems to prick the tongue due to the excess of fixed acidity.

R

aftertaste
Last sensation of the wine that remains in the mouth after swallowing
Reserve
The term is used for wines with a longer aging period than usually expected. The vintage is indicated on the label.
Roundness
A wine is defined as round when the sensations it offers are complex and, at the same time, balanced and soft.

S

Sapidity
Sensation due to the presence of mineral salts, it depends on the characteristics of the soil and the climate in which the grapes are grown and on the winemaking practices.
disgorging
Final phase of the production of sparkling wines with champenoise (or classic) method, which precedes their marketing. It consists in removing lees formed under the cork from the bottle.
Dry
It is said of a wine in which the sensation of sweetness is not perceived. Normally these are wines with sugary residues between 1-5 g / l
Scents
Perfume or familythe scent perceived on organoleptic examination via the nasal or retronasal route. The scents are classified into primary (deriving directly from the vine), secondary (born from the fermentation of the wine), tertiary (they develop during the period of aging or aging of the wine).
Sulfites
Salts present in wine and produced mainly by an additive (Sulfur dioxide) used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant since the eighteenth century. A small amount of sulphites is naturally present in the wine, varying according to the production area and the grape variety. Strict rules establish the maximum permitted quantities.
Fluffy
It is said of a wine that gives the palate a sensation similar to that experienced by touch by manipulating a fabric.
Sommelier
He is the person in charge of dealing with drinks and in particular wine in hotels and restaurants. His skills concern both the complete management of the cellar and the room service.
Evolutionary stage
Quality of wine linked to its evolution, which can vary in duration depending on the type of wine. With maturation, the wine shifts its balance from hardness to ever greater softness. In general, according to its evolution, a wine can be defined as immature (it has yet to finish aging), young (it has a balance where hardness, fragrance and freshness predominate), ready (it is ready to drink, but can still improve), mature (reached maximum balance).
Structure
Sensation that a wine leaves on the palate, deriving from all the solid substances present. In red wines it is mainly determined by tannins.
Sur Lie
French term that indicates the refinement of a wine on lees formed by yeasts after fermentation. It can be made in the bottle or other storage container and is used as an alternative to the normal refinement in the bottle to produce rich and full-bodied white wines.

T

Tannico
Taste sensation of astringency linked to the strong presence of tannin, a chemical present in almost all plant extracts, from wine to tea. In addition to the grape, the tannin can be transferred to the wine from the wood of the barriques
Tannin
Tannin is a compound present in the skins, stalks and grape seeds as well as in the wood of the barrels. It participates in the formation of the color of the wine and is responsible for the astringency sensation that dries the mouth
Terroir
Broad concept, which goes beyond the definition of just the land and contains a set of factors that characterize the typicality of a vineyard, including: land morphology, sun exposure, temperatures, precipitation, climate.

U

Grapes

Assembly, during vinification, of different grapes. When the assembly is done after vinification, therefore by combining the wines and not the grapes, we simply speak of assembly

V

winemaking
Biochemical process of transformation of grapes into wine, from pressing to placing on the market
Grapevine
A particular vine variety, characterized by the shape and color of the grapes, the bunch and the leaves, by a specific ripening period and, above all, by the different organoleptic characteristics of the wines obtained from it